This article will provide a basic understanding of what components are needed in a solar power energy storage system. We will try to made it simple and relatively easy as possible as we can.
To set up a stable and flexible solar power energy storage system, the major components needed are Solar Panel, Charge Controller, Battery Bank and Inverter.
1. Solar Panel
A solar cell panel, solar electric panel, photo-voltaic (PV) module or solar panel is an assembly of photo-voltaic cells mounted in a framework for installation. Solar panels use sunlight as a source of energy to generate direct current electricity. A collection of PV modules is called a PV panel, and a system of PV panels is called an array. Arrays of a photovoltaic system supply solar electricity to electrical equipment.
Depending on the nature of the connections between the solar cells, your solar panel system can achieve a number of different combinations of volt and ampere ratings. Consequently, your solar panels can have a number of different power output ratings.
If you have a number of different solar panels, you may need to combine their outputs with a combiner box.
2. Charge Controller
A charge controller, charge regulator or battery regulator limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries to protect against electrical overload, overcharging, and may protect against over-voltage.
This prevents conditions that reduce battery performance or lifespan and may pose a safety risk. It may also prevent completely draining (“deep discharging”) a battery, or perform controlled discharges, depending on the battery technology, to protect battery life.
The output power of solar panels fluctuates depending on the amount of sunlight they receive. Because the sun moves across the sky over the course of a day, panels output a different amount of power throughout the day. When battery panels receive no sunlight, they output no power. If you power a device directly from a solar panel, the device may not receive enough power to sustain operation. Therefore, the power should be stored in a battery bank. The charge controller regulates the power coming from the solar panels with the right voltage and current to the battery bank. This is important for safe and efficient battery charging.
3. Battery Bank
Battery Banks are devices that enable energy from renewable, like solar and wind, to be stored and then released when customers need power most.
They may be configured in a series, parallel or a mixture of both to deliver the desired voltage, capacity, or power density.
Power from a charge controller travels to a battery bank for storage. A battery bank stores the power from the solar power system based on its amp hour rating.
[AH or Amp hours denote the amount of amps of current that a battery could output in one hour before needing a charge.]
Generally, the options for battery banks can be lead acid battery, AGM battery, or LiFePO4 battery etc. LiFePO4 Battery Bank is becoming more and more popular with the lots of advantages.
Inverter (or invertor)is a power electronic device or circuitry that converts the direct current (DC) into alternating current (AC) which is used by domestic and commercial appliances. The resulting AC frequency obtained depends on the particular device employed. The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend on the design of the specific device or circuitry. It is one of the most critical components of the solar power system.
Many electrical devices and systems require alternating current power, or AC. For example, the electrical outlets (or fridges, air conditioners, TVs, fans etc.) in a typical house provide alternating current. For this reason, a solar power system will have an inverter that converts the DC power from the battery bank or solar panels to AC power suitable for the home applications.
To build a basic solar power energy storage system, you need 4 components: Solar Panel, Charge Controller, Battery Bank, and Inverter.
Certainly, you also need some basic electrical knowledge to combine them together into a system.
Thanks to the technology development, things are becoming easier and easier.
Now, there are intelligent solar inverters in the market which already integrated the charge controller. If use a intelligent solar inverter, you only need 3 components: Solar Panels, Intelligent Solar Inverter, Battery Banks.
Furthermore, we already have the All-in-One System (Solar Charge Controller, AC Charger, LiFePO4 Battery Bank, Inverter) available!
Only solar panels outside, very easy for installation.